Worms in humans - signs, symptoms, treatment

Parasitic infection – this is a large group of diseases, the representatives of which are organisms of the class the simplest and helminths (worms). To date it is known more than 200 species of parasites, of which 70 species occur on the territory of european countries and Russia.

Parasites penetrated in the human organism, evolve and exist because of the "use" of the resources of his body, in return, that poisons its products of its life and causes numerous dysfunction of organs and systems.

In the first stage of development worm infestations diagnosis of the disease is practically impossible, because the man still does not feel the presence of parasites and his condition is satisfactory.

Parasitic infection

And a moment later, one still does not experience discomfort from the presence of parasites in the body, only occasionally can be observed various minor problems in the work of certain organs and systems. In this case, it is important factor is the thoughtful relationship to his health. I mean, even a small sickness can be the first warning sign of the development of start-ups of the disease.

Most often infection is diagnosed accidentally, due to the scheduled examination, or when a person has already sought medical help, due to the dynamically deteriorating general condition.

Classification of parasites

All the parasites can be divided into:

  • the simplest micro-organisms (giardia, Toxoplasma gondii, dysentery amoebas);
  • helminths (pinworms, ascaris, Toxocara)

Helminths – a very diverse group of parasites, which is characterized by different life cycles, biological characteristics, spread inside the body and specific developments in it. So classified deworming on various principles: structure, life cycle, depending on the location of parasites and the duration of interaction with the organism of the host.

On the biological principles distinguish:

  1. Bio-helminths (bullish and pig tapeworm, Echinococcus, opisthorchis). The life cycle of these parasites should be carried out in two or even three intermediate hosts, i.e. in other living organisms.
  2. Geo-helminths (Ascaris, whipworm, Ancylostoma). In the process of its development do not require changes to the host, are excreted along with fecal materials on the environment and localized in the soil, and at a certain temperature and moisture in the eggs to develop into larvae. The eggs, which are live larvae, penetrate into the body and there comes the next stage of their development.
  3. Contact helminths (pinworm, dwarf tapeworm) data parasites are excreted into the environment along with the faecal masses and when non-observance of personal hygiene, leads to infecting the oral-fecal route, then they are the eggs of these parasites a person swallows. The main source of infection are the hands dirty.

The structure of the helminths are divided into:

  • nematode or round worms (pinworms, roundworm,vlasoglavy);
  • flukes or luck (shistosoma, opisthorchis, cats and siberian Fluke);
  • cestodes or tape worms (Echinococcus, cattle and pig tapeworm).

According to the location on the body we can distinguish:

  • intestinal worming (pinworms, roundworm, bovine and porcine tapeworm);
  • outside-intestinal (alveolar, opisthorchiasis, trichinella).

Paths of infection of the parasites

There are various ways of infection with worms:

  1. The eating of meat dishes, which did not undergo a quality heat treatment, meat can be parasites, who are firmly established in the muscles of large and small cattle, eating meat, a person infected swine and beef tapeworm, Echinococcus.
  2. Eat salty, smoked, little-solo and raw fish. In raw fish are opisthorchis and broad tapeworm, because the life cycle of these parasites involves the exchange of a few owners, one of which is fish.
  3. Drinking raw water from unknown sources, washing dishes, vegetables and fruits in such water, e.g. on vacation.
  4. When working in the garden without protective gloves geo-helminths can get it on your hands, and through the hands to the mouth. It is also possible to become infected by this kind of parasites through the dirty vegetables, herbs and berries.
  5. Through contact with a pet. Domestic dogs and cats are vectors and host to many parasites. In particular, it is necessary to allow the pet to retreat in the same bed with people, or make them lick the face and hands of a man.
  6. The source of infection a person can be infected with the acute form of the helminths.

Symptoms of worms in adult human


Symptoms of worms in humans are manifested already in the later stage of the development of the infection. Of course, some of the signals the body sends are already at the very beginning of the disease, the main thing in time to pay attention and interpret correctly. In the first stages of the penetration of parasites into the body, a person can experience minor symptoms, which can be taken as a result of other diseases:

  • quick fatigue;
  • frequent headaches;
  • increasing weakness;
  • increased irritability;
  • sleep disorders;
  • weight loss for no apparent reason;
  • apathy and depression.

In the next stage of development worm infestations, there is a general Allergy of the body. On the skin of the patient's skin are different kinds of rashes, and a clinical examination of the blood detects an increase in eosinophils, a testimony of the development of allergic reactions.

When the parasite develops in the adult and localized in a particular organ, then appear symptoms characteristic for the area of the presence of parasites. Most helminths are placed in the small or large intestine, therefore, are the observed symptoms characteristic for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in the form of dyspeptic disorders (fermentation and putrefactive phenomena):

  • pain in the navel;
  • the loss or deterioration of appetite;
  • in some cases, increased appetite;
  • flatulence; rumbling and gurgling in the abdomen;
  • constipation and diarrhea;
  • vomiting and diarrhea;
  • bloating.

In addition, there is the development of anemia and IMR, because a person is experiencing a lack of nutrients that capture the parasites. In this case, the person feels:

  • chronic fatigue;
  • dizziness;
  • increasing weakness;
  • headaches.

In severe advanced cases, there has been the development of serious diseases that require urgent treatment:

  • allergic myocarditis;
  • meningoencephalitis;
  • pneumonia;
  • hepatitis or violation of hemostasis;
  • hematuria (blood in urine);
  • a decrease in the protective forces of the organism (disturbance of the functioning of the immune system);
  • violations in the work of the endocrine system;
  • the defeat of the lymph nodes.

A decrease in the protective forces of the organism increases the likelihood of developing viral and bacterial infections. And in children parasites induce a delay in physical growth and mental development. Symptoms of worms in humans are of general character, however, different kinds of parasites and their localization in the body contributes to the development of characteristic symptoms from the side of the authorities concerned.


The clinical picture in the infestation of different kinds of parasites

Depending on the helminth that lives in the body, the symptoms can be very diverse.

For example, when on enterobiasis the main symptoms are:

  • itching in the anus;
  • pain in the abdominal area;
  • wolverine in girls, in case of contact with parasites on the mucous membrane of the vagina.

The initial phase of ascariasis, which is called migration, is manifested in the form of:

  • lung disease: bronchitis, laryngitis or trachea.

When the intestinal form of ascariasis observed:

  • nausea and vomiting;
  • pain in the abdomen;
  • by reducing appetite;
  • advanced acne on the skin;
  • the rise of eosinophils in the blood.

In severe advanced cases occurred:

  • violation of the integrity of the walls of the intestine;
  • with the subsequent development of peritonitis and appendicitis (when hitting the Ascaris in the Appendix);
  • the defeat of the liver;
  • bowel obstruction (when blockage of the lumen of the intestine).

When infection of the cestode (conveyor worms) in the process of defecation and urination along with the fecal masses projecting part itself of the parasite. In this case the following symptoms are observed:

  • nausea and vomiting;
  • increasing weakness;
  • dizziness and headaches;
  • constipation and diarrhea;
  • pain in the abdomen;
  • reduction in body weight.

When disease progression occurred to the development of severe anemia, which is caused by a deficiency of vitamin b-12 and iron.

Opisthorchis its presence in the body can cause serious defeat of the biliary tract the liver, gallbladder, and pancreatic cancer. Because of the presence of parasites in these bodies creates a barrier to the escape of bile, then develops cholecystitis; dyskinesia of the biliary tract, pancreatitis. Inflammatory processes in these organs are accompanied by an increase in temperature indicators, heaviness in the right hypochondrium, pain in the gall bladder (biliary colic), nausea and vomiting and diarrhea. The availability of Trichinella in the body causes severe defeat muscles: intercostal, masseter, muscles of the tongue, pharynx, eye, aperture.

Hookworm, vlasoglavy, shistosoma, broad tapeworm cause in the body, anemia, dysbiosis of the intestines, beriberi, disorders of the metabolism. And in the urine-sexual schistosomiasis appear such symptoms, as is urinating with blood.

When alveococcosis, Echinococcusoz, cysticercosis in the initial phase, is practically without symptoms, but in acute stage of the development occurs suppuration and rupture of small cysts with parasites, which leads to very serious consequences:

  • inflammation of the peritoneum;
  • inflammation of the pleura;
  • anaphylactic shock;
  • damage to the blood vessels and chronic bleeding from them (hookworm feed on blood);
  • to the defeat of the central nervous system.

Roundworms Strongyloides trigger the development of allergic reactions, the pathology of the biliary tract and violations in the work of the digestive system.

Broad tapeworm

The Test, which can determine the presence of parasites in the body

With the help of this test can reveal the presence of parasites in the body. To do this you need only answer the following questions:

  1. Keep track of whether you have itching in the anus?
  2. There are rashes on the skin?
  3. Feeling sick?
  4. It happens whether vomiting?
  5. If it's insomnia?
  6. There is bitterness in the mouth? And how often?
  7. Raised, whether the lymph nodes?
  8. How often will appear muscle pain? What is their intensity?
  9. Watch, whether it is weight loss?
  10. Observe whether the loss of appetite?
  11. If such symptoms as fatigue, increased fatigue, decreased concentration and endurance?

If it was taken 10 Yes answers, then we can assume the availability of a worm infection with a high degree of probability. All of these symptoms are observed in the acute stage of the development of the disease. Because in this period the helminths are the most active and greatly affect the body.

Prevention of anti-worm invasion

Prevention of helminths first comes to the observance of rules of personal hygiene:

  • frequent hand washing;
  • frequent alternation of wearable and linen;
  • timely and quality cleaning of premises;
  • the use of individual items: towels, dishes, etc.;
  • timely deworming enabled;
  • quality of thermal processing of meat products and fish;
  • refusal to eat the raw fish, carefully taking in salty food, specialties including dried, smoked and little-solo fish;
  • all garden work carried out in the protective gloves;
  • use only clean water for drinking;
  • no, to swim in unknown water areas;
  • to carry out drug prevention helminths twice a year: in spring and autumn.