Types of human parasites and diseases caused by parasites

what pinworms look like

Pinwormis a frequent guest in children's groups. It is a medium-sized (up to 1 cm long) inhabitant of the small and large intestines, lays eggs, leaving the rectum, on skin folds, underwear and bedding. This occurs more often at night, accompanied by severe itching in the anus. Pinworm eggs ripen after 4-6 hours and are ready to cause disease, they are perfectly preserved in the environment. They enter the human body with dust, with dirty hands, through lint, underwear, dishes.

Make a diagnosis - scraping of the skin around the anus and examining under a microscope is required, at least 3 times at 3 day intervals.

When pinworm eggs are found, the entire family of those infected should be examined.

Around 350 million people around the world are infected with enterobiosis, when a family member is infected, the danger of the disease for all households is very high.

Toxocara - a parasite

Toxocarais a parasite of the digestive system of dogs. In the USA and Europe, 80% of puppies and more than 50% of adult dogs are affected by toxocariasis. Human surveys have shown that up to 37% of the population is sensitized to the Toxocara antigen. This means that these people were or are now carriers of toxocara.

Toxocara is up to 30 cm long, in this form it lives in the body of its permanent owner - a dog. The dog releases toxocard eggs into the sand, soil, where they can persist for several years. Together with the sand, they fall into the hands of children playing in the sandboxes, and also stick to shoes and clothes. Getting into a person is a dead end for the parasite, because the larvae mature, spread through the vessels and internal organs, but do not stand out.

To make a diagnosis, stool analysis is not at all informative, a biopsy of the affected organs (usually the liver) and immunological tests are necessary.

The most tragic is the drift of toxocar in the eyes (15% of eye ablation cases worldwide are due to toxocara), damage to the lungs, heart, brain, muscles is also unpleasant -fever, cough, enlarged liver, inflammation of the lymph nodes, rash, nervous and mental disorders, seizures.

Ascaris - a parasite

roundworms in the human body

Ascaris- affects up to 100 million people each year. It enters a person with food (usually herbs, vegetables and uncooked fruits), with raw water, dirty hands, dust, and is actively carried by flies. The length of the roundworm can reach 40 cm, a female roundworm daily secretes up to 200, 000 eggs, which penetrate into the soil and are well preserved there for years. The swallowed roundworm egg turns into a larva in the small intestine, then enters the intestinal wall, enters the blood capillaries, is transported to the liver, brain, eyes, heart and lungs. In the process of movement, roundworms feed on blood - erythrocytes and nutrients. Anemia (anemia) is a frequent companion of ascariasis.

Migration of larvae causes allergies in humans, pain throughout the body, fever, increased risk of asthma, arthritis, neurodermatitis, eczema, seizures. If it enters the lungs due to ruptured blood vessels, hemorrhages and hemoptysis are possible, on X-rays - infiltrates, as in a tuberculous process.

Moving along the bronchi to the pharynx, roundworms with sputum enter the mouth, and from there - into the esophagus, stomach and intestines. In the intestine, the roundworms are retained, resting against the walls of the intestines, causing inflammation, infiltration and hemorrhage. Complications are possible when the roundworm enters the nasal sinuses, liver, bile ducts, pancreas, and kidneys. There is intestinal obstruction, suppurative processes in the abdominal cavity. Diagnosis is based on stool analyzes (at least 3 times), immunological tests - during the larval period.

Hookworm - a parasite

hookworm- can penetrate a person through the skin when walking barefoot (it does not leave marks), as well as, like roundworm, through the mouth. Hookworms - up to 1. 5 cm, migrate and harm in the same way as roundworms. A feature is such a symptom such as an itchy rash on the limbs and more pronounced anemia.

Stool tests, like most invasions, should be done at least 3 times.

Wide ribbon - parasite

large tapeworm in human body

Wide tapewormis a large, long liver,the length of an individual can reach 10 meters, the lifespan in the human body can reach 25 years.Can you imagine what happens to a person if there are several great centenarians inside?

Imagine how the worm is twisted in the gut, how little space is left in the lumen of the human gut! If the worm "stood up", then half of its length would remain hooked! By the way, the worm absorbs all necessary and useful substances for itself from the entire surface of the body.

You can become infected by eating raw and insufficiently salted fish, crayfish, and caviar. Symptoms of the presence of a tapeworm may be anemia, exhaustion, abdominal pain, especially signs such as increased salivation in the morning, vomiting, nausea, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness should bealerted. Bowel obstruction is possible.

A completely amazing effect on an unprepared person is produced by the release of the severed "tail" of the parasite from the intestines - this is a feature of tapeworms that helps in making a diagnosis.

Tapeworms in cattle and pork are parasites

Tapeworms of cattle and pork are parasites that enter the human body with raw meat, meat products, lard.

The length of an adult bovine tapeworm can reach 7 meters, that of a pig tapeworm up to 2 meters, the lifespan can reach 20 years, and the main danger is the migration of larvae, which are able to even penetrate the eyes and the brain.

Echinococcus and Alveococcus - parasites

echinococcus and alveococcus in the body

Echinococcus and alveococcus are parasites that infect a person through contact with animal carriers, by drinking contaminated water, by swallowing soil with berries and vegetables.

Larvae in the intestine are carried in the bloodstream throughout the body, entering the liver, lungs, kidneys, bones and brain. The larva turns into a cyst, which develops by pushing and squeezing the surrounding tissue. Symptoms depend on the location of the cyst and the degree of compression of the organs.

Ruptured cyst is a very serious complication.

Giardia - a parasite

Giardiais the simplest parasitic animal of the flagellate class. It is pear-shaped and is 10–20 µm in length; the dorsal side is convex, the ventral side is concave and forms a suction cup for temporary attachment to the epithelial cells of the host's intestine. 2 oval nuclei, 4 pairs of flagella. It lives in the human intestine (mainly in children), mainly in the duodenum, less often in the bile ducts and gallbladder, causing giardiasis. Asymptomatic parasitic carriers are common. Infection with cysts occurs when protozoa enter the lower intestine through the mouth when contaminated food or water enters the body, as well as through dirty hands, etc. The incidence is sporadic. Giardiasis is common in all parts of the world.