Types of parasites living in the human body


All types of parasites in the human body adversely affect its health. They infect organs, feed on nutrients necessary for human life and release harmful toxic substances. Therefore, it is so important to get rid of it in a timely manner.

The human body is affected by various parasites, some live inside the body, others on its surface. They differ in size, the way they enter the body, the characteristics of their vital activity.

What parasites live in the human body? How to get rid of them? What preventive measures are there? These questions will be discussed below.

Classification of parasites

Human parasites are very common, they are divided into groups:

  1. Endoparasitesorganisms that parasitize inside a person are called. This group, in turn, is divided into protozoa (consisting of a single cell) and helminths (worms). The simplest, parasitic in the human body, are amoeba, lamblia, trichomonas, toxoplasm. As for the worms, there is again a division into round worms (nematodes), flat and tapeworms.
  2. Ectoparasites- these are organisms that parasitize on the surface of the human body - lice, ticks, fleas, insects. In addition to the fact that they feed on human blood, cause great discomfort (bites, burns, skin wounds), they are carriers of quite dangerous diseases: typhus, anthrax, trypanosomiasis and others.

Single-celled parasites:

  1. Giardia. . . Giardiasis infection is a faecal-oral mechanism. After cysts (parasites not yet formed, covered with a protective membrane) are removed from the anus of a sick person, they spread to vegetables, fruits and other food products. Through improperly washed hands, stagnant water, insufficiently washed fruits and vegetables, cysts enter the human oral cavity, from where they safely reach the intestines, where they again turn into an adult and multiply. again. The result is a vicious cycle that will continue until adequate treatment is provided and hygiene measures are followed. Symptoms of the disease are weakness, fatigue, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bloating. Itching in the anus, rashes, bronchial asthma may occur. The pathology is characterized by weight loss, anemia and a weakened immune system. Treatment is based on antiprotozoal drugs. The dosage is prescribed by the doctor.
  2. Toxoplasm. . . Infection with these protozoa occurs through contact with infected pets. In this case, a person is an intermediate host, since the cycle of sexual development of the parasite occurs in the body of the animal. The disease is manifested by a prolonged increase in temperature to subfebrile levels, general signs of intoxication, the patient has enlarged lymph nodes, joint and muscle pain appears. In addition, the functions of the gastrointestinal tract and the visual are disturbed, the central nervous system may suffer, there are signs of heart disease and endocrine system. Complex treatment is prescribed - antibiotics from the group of tetracyclines and sulfonamides.
  3. Trichomonads. . . Trichomonas is sexually transmitted, the risk of infection through contact is minimal, but still there. Symptoms of the disease in women are itching, redness of the genitals, a burning sensation and a foamy discharge. Men may have difficulty passing urine and have a discharge. Treatment - anti-trichomonas drugs.

Pinworm is an intestinal parasite

The most well-known internal parasites are pinworms. They live in the intestines and cause a disease called enterobiosis. This type of parasite affects not only humans, but monkeys as well. Risk group - preschool children, according to statistics, enterobiosis is diagnosed in half of children 2-10 years old.


Worms are transmitted from person to person, you can get infected by any object used by a sick person or by a handshake. The main condition for the transfer of pinworm eggs is not to wash your hands after contact, especially before eating. Worms, or rather their eggs, can be carried by flies and cockroaches.

Pinworms can only live in the intestines, they are especially comfortable in the thin section, in the colon and cecum. For mating, the parasites select the ileum, from where the female crawls through the anus and lays eggs in the anus. Symptoms of pinworms in the body are itching in the anus, allergies, fatigue, anemia, abdominal pain, exhaustion.

For the treatment of enterobiosis, anthelmintics are prescribed. Prevention of pinworms is based on hand hygiene. They should be washed after visiting public places.

Roundworms - roundworms

The length of an adult can reach 40 cm. Roundworms live in the human intestine, their eggs hatch naturally, and then they continue to develop in the soil, where they remain until they reenter the human body. Dirty hands and unwashed vegetables and fruits are means of roundworm infection. Roundworm eggs are covered with a shell that does not dissolve in the human stomach and allows the roundworms to survive and enter the intestines, where mature individuals thrive.


Ascariasis can be asymptomatic for a long time. Then symptoms appear, which depend on the location and stage of development of the parasite. In the first migratory phase of ascariasis, the patient worries about fever, cough with sputum, rash, migraines, enlarged lymph nodes, liver and spleen. In the late phase, when the parasite already enters the intestines, stool disorders are observed (dysentery, cholera-like symptoms, signs of typhoid fever may occur). There are painful sensations in the abdomen, sudden weight loss and fatigue.

Large tapeworm

Infection with this parasite occurs through fish. It is the intermediate host of the worm. It is not necessary to eat for the infection, sometimes a simple contact with infected fish is enough. This is why it is so important to handle the hands, knife and board very carefully after cutting the fish.

Large tapeworm

From a sick person to a healthy person, neither worms nor their larvae are transmitted. Symptoms of infection are nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, increased or decreased appetite, dyspeptic disorders. The first signs of the disease may appear a month or two after infection. Due to the long-term presence of the parasite in the human body, paleness of the skin, headache, increased heart rate, decrease in blood pressure, weakness, anemia occurs. Treatment is aimed at killing the worm. For this, anthelmintics are used.

Bovine tapeworm

The bovine tapeworm can reach 12 m in length. It is a hermaphrodite that can produce more than 100, 000 eggs, which are excreted in the feces. The eggs fall into the ground, and then on the plants, these plants are eaten by the cattle. In the body of an animal, the eggs become larvae, located in the muscles. If a person eats contaminated beef, the larvae enter the intestines. The larvae are not transmitted from person to person.

Adult worms have a head with four suckers, a neck, and a body made up of segments. The number of segments is constantly increasing, the mature segments can separate from the worm and crawl out of the human intestine.

Bovine tapeworm

Symptoms of the disease are: nausea, vomiting, dyspeptic disorders, increased salivation, dizziness, weakness, nervousness, fatigue, abdominal pain of uncertain localization, allergies, fluctuations in appetite.

In order to remove bovine tapeworm from the body, there is a 3-stage scheme: preparatory (cleansing the body), treatment with antiparasitic drugs, recovery (diet, herbal medicine).

Pork tapeworm

A person can get infected with pork tapeworm from dirty hands, undercooked meat, dirty water, an infected person can excrete tapeworm segments and larvae into the environment with vomit and feces.

The worm can live in the human body for up to 15-17 years, it adheres to the intestinal lining, and its larvae can spread throughout the body with the blood stream and attach to any organ. It is especially dangerous if the larva enters the brain.

Pigs are the intermediate host; people who have frequent contact with raw meat are most at risk of contracting this parasite. The pork chain can become infected both by contact and by eating insufficiently heat-treated meat. In order for all the larvae of the pork tapeworm to be destroyed in the meat, the meat should be cooked for a long time or frozen for 2-3 weeks.

Pork tapeworm

Pork tapeworm can affect the small intestine, liver, brain, visual organs, muscles, etc. If the tapeworm affects vital organs, a person can suffer from paralysis or even death.

Symptoms of pork tapeworm: occurrence of allergic reactions, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, weakness, dizziness, headache, weight loss, itching in the anus. The worm infects the intestinal lining, so the symptoms are very similar to those of enteritis.

Treatment involves taking drugs that have a paralyzing effect on the worm, so that it cannot stay on the intestinal walls and come out. But at the same time, it emits a large amount of toxic substances, which can cause anaphylactic shock in a person. Therefore, treatment should only be carried out under the supervision of a doctor.

Parasites in the mouth

Parasites in the human mouth can most often be represented by the following types:

  • trichomonads;
  • oral amoeba;
  • Diptera larvae (buccal myiasis).

The clinical picture may be as follows:

  • the allergies;
  • weakness, weight loss;
  • foul odor from the mouth;
  • a feeling of restlessness in the larynx;
  • itching and sweating;
  • nausea, loss of strength.

Worms that live in the mouth can destroy the teeth, create purulent deposits on the mucous membrane and the tongue. Treatment is only prescribed by a doctor who takes into account the existing symptoms, as well as the types of parasites. A prerequisite for treatment is the examination of all persons in contact with the patient.

To summarize

Importantly, not all of them have been considered, even the most common parasites that can live inside the human body. It is important to understand the great danger in this neighborhood: worms in a person can have very serious consequences and ultimately cause the death of their owner. Therefore, it is very important to timely diagnose the parasites and get rid of them. As for preventive measures, they mainly consist of high quality hygiene and roasting of the meat consumed.