To get rid of parasites, you must first understand which parasites have settled inside the patient and if they exist. To do this, there is a simple fingerprint test. If eosinophils do not exceed 5, you can be calm - there are no parasites in the body. If this indicator is more than 5, a fecal analysis for worm eggs is carried out, and depending on the results of the analysis, treatment will be prescribed. Medicines against parasites have many unpleasant side effects: hair loss, seizures, kidney failure, drug-induced hepatitis up to cirrhosis of the liver, so only a doctor should prescribe them.
Common symptoms that are commonly attributed to the presence of parasites include nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pallor, irregular bowel movements, and constipation. These symptoms are more likely to indicate anemia or thyroid dysfunction. If they have appeared or have lasted for a while, the smartest thing to do is see a doctor. And as a preventive measure, wash your hands more often.
Fear of parasites
Many people are completely sincere and are very afraid of parasites, which, supposedly, strive to get into their bodies. And therefore, they are ready to spend a lot of money on crooks who not only research, but also "find" parasites, and then "prescribe" all kinds of dietary supplements and other remedies for imaginary helminths to naive victims. Some try to get rid of parasites on their own with the help of garlic, onions and horseradish - the drugs in them are at least safe. But what will be in the pot received from future doctors is still unknown.
The problem of parasitosis really exists, it only exists in the countries of Asia, Africa and South America. Thus, in some Asian countries, the infection of people with opisthorchiasis reaches 80%. There, special measures are taken to disinfect food and water. But all this is not with us, tropical parasites do not survive in the home climate, although opisthorchiasis is common in holon regions. It is transmitted by fish, as well as by cats and dogs that feed on this fish. But today we are going to talk about other parasites, which it is quite possible to infect in our middle lane. These parasites are roundworms and pinworms.
Ascaris and ascariasis
Ascaris parasitizes only in humans. The parasite is a fairly long, yellowish-reddish roundworm. The length of an adult male is 15-25 cm, the female is longer - up to 20-40 cm. If roundworms enter the human body, the disease develops ascariasis. At the same time, the gastrointestinal tract suffers more, but damage to other organs is also possible, as well as allergic reactions. Ascariasis is quite common, 60 to 85 people out of 100, 000 get sick from it.
Life cycle of roundworms: through the blood to the intestines
A sick person is not dangerous in terms of infection, because infection occurs when the eggs enter the body. And the eggs come out with feces and first ripen in the ground. Eggs have a dense shell, so they can stay in the soil for up to seven years. You can get infected by eating vegetables, fruits, or berries that have been exposed to Ascaris eggs. In the body, the parasite goes through a long cycle of movement. First, the larvae hatch from swallowed eggs and enter the bloodstream through the intestinal walls. Along with the bloodstream, they migrate to the liver, to the heart, then to the lungs, and from them to the pharynx. When the patient swallows them, the larvae in the intestines turn into adult worms, capable of laying eggs.
Symptoms: abdominal pain, nausea, weight loss
As the larvae pass through the body, allergic manifestations are manifested. It is also possible that mechanical damage is caused to the organs through which the larvae pass - the liver, blood vessels, lungs, intestines. The patient may have a high fever, a rash and pain in the liver area, and at the end of the migratory phase - cough and shortness of breath. When roundworms settle in the intestines, their waste is poisoned. In addition, the sharp ends of the worms can injure or even pierce the intestine. Manifestations include abdominal pain, morning sickness, loss of appetite, and changes in stool. In addition, there is impaired well-being, poor sleep, headaches, increased fatigue and weight loss. The presence of roundworm in the intestine causes a lack of vitamins B6, A and C.
Diagnosis of ascariasis
For diagnosis, blood is taken for a general analysis (increased eosinophils, increased ESR, sometimes anemia) and an antibody test. Under the microscope, larvae can be found in the sputum of patients. In the intestinal stage, roundworm eggs, and sometimes the worms themselves, are detected in the stool.
Medicines for ascariasis
Treatment of ascariasis does not require hospitalization, except in complicated cases. Patients receive a diet rich in vitamins, low in fat and low in carbohydrates. Food intake - four to five times a day. Drugs with antiparasitic action, antihistamines, probiotics and enzyme preparations are presented.
Complications of ascariasis
A complication of ascariasis can be intestinal obstruction due to a blockage by a worm ball. When roundworms crawl into the bile ducts, vomiting, jaundice, severe abdominal pain on the right occurs. By the same principle, ascariasis pancreatitis is possible, as well as respiratory failure when the airways are obstructed by parasites.
Pinworms and enterobiosis
Pinworms are translucent white worms only 0. 5-1cm long with a pointed end, which explains their name. They mainly parasitize the large intestine and can go away over time without medication, if self-infection does not occur. The fact is that in order to lay eggs, the females descend into the anus and do so in the perianal folds, after which they die. In the patient, this process causes severe itching. If, after scratching the itchy area, the patient does not wash his hands, the eggs will fall on the laundry, surrounding objects, into food and may remain under the nails. The patient can swallow pinworm eggs himself. This is how self-infection occurs.
Symptoms: anal itching
The main symptom is severe itching in the anus at night, as this is when the parasite lays its eggs. With enterobiasis, symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract are possible: abdominal pain, nausea, increased gas production and nervous system: fatigue, sleep disturbances or insomnia (severe anal itching interferes with normal sleep). Pinworms can crawl through the female genital tract, causing irritation, pain, and discharge. And even cause a cough - if it enters the lower respiratory tract.
Diagnosis and treatment of enterobiasis
Mainly, the scraping of the perianal folds (or the application of duct tape) is used, after which the resulting material is examined under a microscope. So you can find helminth eggs. In a blood test, as in ascariasis, there will be an increase in eosinophils, with the development of complications - signs of inflammation (increased leukocytes, increased ESR). For treatment, antiparasitic drugs are used. Some of them are contraindicated for pregnant and lactating women. To reduce itching, the anus is lubricated with numbing ointment. The most popular folk remedy is garlic.
Complications: dysbiosis, appendicitis
Complications will depend on the body's response and the number of parasitic worms. Possible dysbiosis, appendicitis, vaginitis, salpingitis, endometritis (inflammation of the appendages).
Prevention of ascariasis and enterobiasis
- identify and treat patients on time;
- loosen the sandboxes (eggs cannot withstand direct sunlight);
- wash your hands after using the toilet and before eating;
- wash vegetables, fruits, berries.
- carefully iron the laundry, especially the folds;
- clean the apartment with disinfectants;
- provide the patient with personal bedding and sleeping space;
- It is important that children cut their fingernails short.