Helminthiasis in humans - symptoms and treatment of worms, diagnosis

Deterioration of health can be observed not only from infections entering the body.

Parasites and worms can also cause malaise, weakness and depression. They can lead to many consequences that people usually take for the manifestation of a normal inflammatory process.

What is helminthiasis? And what symptoms does it show in the human body?

The answers are quite simple.

Helminths are parasites, roundworms and tapeworms, as well as their bright representatives, such as roundworms, pinworms, bovine tapeworm, tapeworm and many others. Surely many have encountered them in childhood or already in adulthood.

The disease, which received the corresponding name, like helminthiasis, is the result of the influence and activity of helminths in the body.

Worm infection

parasites in the human intestine

Parasites can enter the body of a person, both unnecessarily clean and not obsessed with his health, in several ways. There are enough.

Consider how helminths appear in a healthy body:

  • normal handshake. The easiest way to reach a new host for a parasite. Through the upper layers of the epidermis, they first penetrate the skin, and then the blood. This method of transmission also works through contact with homeless street animals and through contact with other people's objects. Thanks to the good blood circulation of a healthy person, it is not difficult for him to achieve the goal and find himself in the chosen place of his future habitat;
  • through the water. Many helminths are perfectly preserved in the form of larvae in fresh and even sea water. Don't forget the village wells and water pipes. They are not overly sensitive. Care should also be taken when visiting swimming pools, baths and saunas. Perhaps they are treated badly;
  • wet earth and sand. The eggs of many types of worms come out with the feces and fall on these surfaces. In suburban areas and even in a children's sandbox, it is easy to get infected;
  • low quality products. These often include seafood, fruits and vegetables, eggs and milk, cottage cheese;
  • places of massive public congestion of people. Supermarkets, shops, pharmacies and hospitals. This is where many people grab door handles, lockers, packaged goods and handrails every day. And not the fact that they are all healthy. Do not forget about the dirt that gets into these rooms during rainy and humid periods;
  • In summer and autumn, insects are a danger. Mosquitoes and flies, even with their feet, can carry small, microscopic eggs.

To this list of appearance of helminthic invasion in adults and children, one can also add non-compliance with the usual elementary rules of personal hygiene.

What helminths can be infected

types of human parasites

There are a huge number of parasitic representatives. And they all enter the body in different ways, migrate inside and affect specific organs. Some of them choose a single host, while others spend their entire life cycle with different carriers.

People can observe several major isolated parasites in their bodies:

  1. the most common roundworms are nematodes. Small whitish individuals. Reach 40mm. Everyone is familiar with roundworms, pinworms, whipworms and the tropical Guinea worm. They live in the intestines, eggs are laid in the anus, often excreted with feces. Determining helminth infestation by nematodes is very simple and without analysis;
  2. parasitic tapeworms are larger and more dangerous. Reaching 10 meters, they migrate and penetrate almost all vital organs and systems. There have been cases of suffocation after the parasite moves through the respiratory system. Manifested by bovine tapeworm, tapeworm;
  3. trematodes, flukes. They are unpretentious to habitat, so they enter the body both through soil and through water. They travel throughout the human body and under the sebum they are easy to see. This is mainly the eye and eyelid area. They destroy not only the intestinal microflora, but also the tissues of other organs. Toxic effects lead to exhaustion of the body.

It is, of course, impossible to independently identify which helminth is in a person. Only the method of worm detection and a comprehensive examination determine the type and further treatment, and prophylaxis is prescribed in case of recovery.

Symptoms of parasites in the body

If helminths have entered the body, you cannot immediately identify them by the symptoms of infection. Some only appear after a while.

But all signs of worms in an adult are quite serious and at first glance proceed for no reason:

  • a sharp increase in temperature at the level of the inflammatory process. Typically 37. 6°C to 38°C;
  • manifestation of nausea, vomiting;
  • aching pain in the abdomen and navel;
  • possible redness of the skin;
  • weakness, drowsiness, fatigue;
  • occasional involuntary teeth grinding at night;
  • persistent dry cough and shortness of breath;
  • violation of normal stool. diarrhea or constipation;
  • itching in the anus;
  • the acquisition of a yellowish or too pale complexion;
  • discomfort in muscles and joints.

It is not immediately possible to make an accurate diagnosis on the basis of such signs. But helminths in humans show only those symptoms that correspond to damaged organs. And these are usually the intestines, bronchi and liver with the kidneys.

Signs of helminthiasis running

abdominal pain due to parasites

Late detection of parasites can lead to much more complex consequences:

  1. a sharp decrease in immunity. Accordingly, the ability of any infection and virus to enter the body;
  2. urticaria, bronchial asthma, a consequence of the constant poisoning action of parasites. Worm discharge causes severe allergy in the body;
  3. intense hair loss, eyelashes;
  4. unexplained brittle nails;
  5. tooth decay, enamel gradually disappears;
  6. profuse bleeding from the gums;
  7. nervousness, mental disorders.

Worms in humans not only show symptoms of infection, but also cause many diseases, exacerbate the course of existing diseases, and therefore treatment of parasites is mandatory.

It is better to conduct an examination in time and start a full-fledged complex removal of helminths from the body.

Diseases caused by parasites

infections caused by parasites

The ruthless signs characteristic of helminthic invasion indicate that the body is under severe toxic effects or already damaged many organs and systems:

  • disruption of the gastrointestinal tract. Due to the fact that most helminths choose this place for further growth and development. It is expressed in intestinal obstruction, dysbacteriosis, diarrhea, pancreatitis;
  • respiratory problems. Each migration of the parasite invariably leads it to the bronchi and lungs. This often leads to spasms, pneumonia;
  • the central nervous system suffers. Headaches, dizziness, loss of orientation in space, irritability and depression;
  • an increase in the spleen, liver, a decrease in the level of bile outflow;
  • inadequate functioning of the urinary system. Urethritis, cystitis;
  • problems with the reproductive organs. Vaginitis, inflammatory processes in the uterus, vagina, ovaries. Possible sexual infection.

These are serious symptoms that appear with helminths. If you care about your health, you should definitely consult a doctor. One of the presented signs forces the specialist to prescribe a special examination.

The most common blood test will show that parasites have appeared in the body. With hemoglobin values below 100 g / l, an increase in the number of eosinophils by more than 6%, an increase in leukocytes from 9% and a decrease in erythrocytes from 3 g / l or less.

Also, a sharp decrease in protein and an increase in immunoglobulins characteristic of allergies should be noted by a specialist.

Parasitic diseases and their symptoms

Depending on the type and class of worms, the signs of helminth infection received their individual names, which distinguish them from each other. For specialists, this classification facilitates the continuation of treatment, recovery and prevention.

Ascariasis. Naturally indicates the symptoms presented by the roundworm parasite and any concomitant diseases. Most often it is not observed immediately, but only 2 weeks after the ingestion of helminths into the body.

Symptoms resemble a common cough, acute bronchitis, mild allergies. Confused with a common infection, as it is accompanied by all of the above features and fever. There may be changes in the lymph nodes.

With advanced chronic ascariasis, all symptoms are complicated. Blood pressure jumps begin, anorexia may appear with a lack of appetite, constant pain in the abdomen. Regular vomiting, stool disorders. The face becomes pale, the color of healthy skin disappears, dark circles and swelling appear. At night, poor sleep or its complete absence becomes habitual. In the fecal secretions, small whitish worms are visualized.

Penetration of pinworms or enterobiasis. Frequent occurrence in young children due to non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. The infection is caused by frequent itching in the anus. Pinworms appear periodically. For 1-2 days with breaks. When the parasites enter, the body's reaction will be involuntary teeth grinding at night, intermittent poor sleep. Not particularly dangerous, pain does not cause.

Worms, like flukes, bring opisthorchiasis with them. The acute course of the disease lasts up to 8 weeks. During this period, there is an increase in body temperature, heaviness and bloating, diarrhea and a feeling of inflammation. With chronic exposure to flukes, symptoms also transfer to the respiratory organs, causing severe allergies, to the central nervous system.

Tapeworm parasites lead to many consequences of their presence in the human body. A large tapeworm can disrupt the pancreas, lead to bowel obstruction, vitamin B12 deficiency, low hemoglobin, and anemia. Similarly, all representatives of tapeworms cause pain syndromes in the abdominal cavity, bloating and nausea.

Giardiasis. There are a small number of these parasites in the human body. But they are safe within the normal range. With exacerbation, their level increases. Which leads to vomiting, bitterness due to disorders of the liver and stomach, characteristic pains in the abdomen, bloating and altered stools.

Naturally, such symptoms of helminthiasis should be treated and should be prevented by carrying out comprehensive prevention.